The Ukrainian Language - Experience of the Independent Ukraine

Опитування
Перегляди: 4529
17 вересня 2020
Read this article in English

The survey was conducted by the Ilko Kucheriv Democratic Initiatives Foundation jointly with the Razumkov Center sociological service from August 14 to 19, 2020, via face-to-face interviews at the respondents' place of residence. 2018 respondents aged over 18 y.o. were interviewed in all regions of Ukraine, except for Crimea and the occupied territories of Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts - a sample representative of the adult population. The theoretical sampling error does not exceed 2.3%. The survey was funded as part of the MATRA project of the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Most Ukrainians believe that the Ukrainian language is an important component of Ukraine's independence - 72% of citizens agree with this statement, and about 25% disagree. This belief is dominant in the West of Ukraine - only 3% of region’s residents don't agree with this statement. In the Central region of Ukraine, 77% believe that language is an important component of the country’s independence; 20% disagree. The Eastern region has the highest proportion of those who disagree with this statement - 49%.

20% of Ukrainians believe that the issue of the promotion of the Ukrainian language is a priority. Another 44% believe that the issue is important, but there are more important ones. 33% believe that this issue is of secondary importance. The Western region has the highest proportion of those who prioritize this issue (42% in the Western region vs. 4% in the Eastern region), and in the Eastern region the issue of the promotion of the Ukrainian language is mostly perceived as secondary (55%).

The majority of Ukrainians (52%) believe that there is no infringement on the rights of the Russian-speaking population in Ukraine. Another 26% believe that there are infringements on the rights of the Russian-speaking population in certain cases; 10% believe that these infringements are systematic. The Western region has the highest proportion of those who believe that there are no infringements on these rights - 76%. The majority of respondents in Central Ukraine agree. In the Eastern region, on the contrary, there is a higher proportion of those who believe that there are infringements on the rights of the Russian-speaking population that are systematic (21%) or take place in certain cases (40%).

51% of Ukrainians believe that there are infringements on the rights of the Ukrainian-speaking people in the occupied territories of Crimea and those that are part of Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts (among them, 25% believe that there are systematic infringements, and 26% believe that these infringements take place in certain cases). Another 19% believe that there are no infringements on these language rights, and almost a third of respondents (31%) are undecided.

The majority of Ukrainians (66%) agree that Russian language in Ukraine can be freely used in private life, but Ukrainian should remain the only official national language. Another 18% believe that it is appropriate to grant the Russian language an official status in certain regions, and 13% believe that the Russian language should become an official national language of Ukraine. There is widespread consensus about the status of the Russian language in the Western and Central regions; in the Southern region, there is a majority that believes Ukrainian should remain the only official national language (62%). The opinion on the issue is split only in the Eastern region – 33% believe that Ukrainian should remain the only national language; 32% support the official regional status of the Russian language, and 31% believe that Russian should become the second official national language.

The majority of Ukrainians (82%) agree that government officials ought to communicate in Ukrainian while at work. It is notable that the majority of respondents who come from both the Eastern and Southern regions agree with this statement (82% and 63% respectively).

Further, the majority of Ukrainians in all regions agree that all citizens ought to be able to speak the official national language: overall, 79% respondents agree with this statement; 16% disagree. The Eastern region has the highest proportion of those who disagree – 28%, but the majority (65%) support the idea that citizens ought to be able to speak Ukrainian.

In all regions, respondents believe that the majority of subjects in public educational institutions ought to be taught in Ukrainian. Overall, 77% approve of this idea, and 17% disapprove of it.

65% of Ukrainians support language quotas, but there are regional differences. The absolute majority of respondents in the Western region support the initiative (95%), and the majority supports it in the Central region (71% approve of the initiative, and 26% have a negative attitude towards it) and the Southern region (46% support the initiative, and 40% have a negative attitude towards it). In the Eastern region, the majority don’t approve of it – 56% have a negative attitude towards the initiative, and only 38% support it.

 

SURVEY RESULTS

  1. Do you believe that the Ukrainian language is an important component of Ukraine’s independence?
  1. Most certainly, yes

42,9

  1. Yes

28,7

  1. No

13,0

  1. Most certainly, no

11,7

  1. Undecided

3,7

 

 

West

Center

South

East

  1. Most certainly, yes

77,5

40,4

27,0

22,8

  1. Yes

19,8

36,6

35,3

22,2

  1. No

0,8

11,9

21,2

21,7

  1. Most certainly, no

0,8

7,7

12,0

27,1

  1. Undecided

1,0

3,4

4,6

6,2

  1. How important do you believe is the issue of the promotion of the Ukrainian language?
  1. A priority issue

19,8

  1. This issue is important, but there are more important ones

43,9

  1. Secondary issue

32,7

  1. Undecided

3,6

 

 

West

Center

South

East

  1. A priority issue

42,1

20,9

5,8

4,3

  1. This issue is important, but there are more important ones

45,8

47,5

40,4

38,6

  1. Secondary issue

9,4

27,4

46,3

55,2

  1. Undecided

2,7

4,2

7,5

1,9

  1. Do you believe that there is an infringement on the rights of the Russian-speaking citizens who reside in Ukraine?
  1. Systematic infringement

10,1

  1. Infringement in certain cases

26,3

  1. No infringement

52,2

  1. Undecided

11,5

 

 

West

Center

South

East

        1. Systematic infringement

3,1

7,5

7,9

21,1

        1. Infringement in certain cases

11,9

23,1

35,3

39,8

        1. No infringement

76,3

58,3

36,1

28,8

        1. Undecided

8,7

11,0

20,7

10,3

4. Do you believe that there is an infringement on the rights of the Ukrainian-speaking citizens who reside in Crimea and the occupied parts of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts?

  1. Systematic infringement

24,5

  1. Infringement in certain cases

26,0

  1. No infringement

18,6

  1. Undecided

30,8

 

 

West

Center

South

East

  1. Systematic infringement

52,4

24,7

6,2

7,5

  1. Infringement in certain cases

23,2

29,6

9,5

30,9

  1. No infringement

8,8

18,6

12,9

30,1

  1. Undecided

15,7

27,1

71,4

31,5

  1. What status should the Russian language have in Ukraine?
  1. The Russian language should be freely used in private spheres, but the Ukrainian language should remain the sole official national language

66,1

  1. The Russian language should be awarded an official regional status

17,9

  1. The Russian language should become the second official national language

12,6

  1. Undecided 

3,5

6. Do you agree with the following statements?

 

Most certainly, yes

Yes

No

Most certainly, no

Undecided

  1. All governmental officials ought to communicate in Ukrainian while at work

51,1

31,2

10,0

4,0

3,8

  1. 75% of content of the national TV channels in Ukraine ought to be aired in Ukrainian

37,6

27,0

21,0

9,4

5,0

  1. All Ukrainian citizens ought to be able to speak Ukrainian

40,4

38,7

11,7

4,3

4,9

  1. The majority of subjects in public educational institutions ought to be taught in Ukrainian

44,7

32,5

11,3

5,6

5,8

6.1 All governmental officials ought to communicate in Ukrainian while at work

 

West

Center

South

East

Most certainly, yes

75,2

51,5

36,5

35,4

Yes

19,4

36,7

45,6

27,3

No

1,9

8,6

10,4

19,2

Most certainly, no

0,4

0,8

2,5

12,4

Undecided

3,1

2,5

5,0

5,6

6.2 75% of content of the national TV channels in Ukraine ought to be aired in Ukrainian

 

West

Center

South

East

Most certainly, yes

72,9

37,6

10,3

18,3

Yes

19,6

33,7

35,5

19,8

No

2,9

22,7

32,6

29,4

Most certainly, no

2,1

3,1

7,0

26,4

Undecided

2,5

2,9

14,5

6,2

6.3 All Ukrainian citizens ought to be able to speak Ukrainian

 

West

Center

South

East

Most certainly, yes

66,7

37,7

24,6

27,7

Yes

25,8

45,1

46,7

37,5

No

3,8

11,3

15,4

17,7

Most certainly, no

0,6

3,1

1,7

10,5

Undecided

3,1

2,7

11,7

6,6

6.4 The majority of subjects in public educational institutions ought to be taught in Ukrainian

 

West

Center

South

East

Most certainly, yes

77,1

46,0

28,2

27,7

Yes

16,7

42,3

39,8

37,5

No

2,3

8,0

17,0

17,7

Most certainly, no

0,8

1,3

2,5

10,5

Undecided

3,1

2,3

12,4

6,6

7. What language do you use to communicate in your household? CHOOSE ONE OPTION   

  1. Russian

36,0

  1. Ukrainian

60,9

  1. Other

1,4

  1. Undecided

1,6

 

 

West

Center

South

East

Russian

2,3

21,4

65,1

74,4

Ukrainian

95,8

76,0

29,9

21,8

Other

1,5

0,4

4,1

1,7

Undecided

0,4

2,2

0,8

2,1

8. What language do you mostly use to communicate while at work/at your educational institution? CHOOSE ONE OPTION

  1.  Russian

24,1

  1. Ukrainian

57,2

  1. Russian and Ukrainian – about the same

16,2

  1. Other

1,4

  1. Undecided

1,0

 

 

West

Center

South

East

 Russian

1,5

8,7

47,5

56,5

Ukrainian

95,4

69,4

26,7

18,6

Russian and Ukrainian – about the same

1,2

20,2

23,8

20,7

Other

1,9

0,8

0,8

2,3

Undecided

0

0,9

1,3

1,9

9. What language do you believe to be your native language? CHOOSE ONE OPTION

  1. Russian

22,0

  1. Ukrainian

73,4

  1. Other

1,7

  1. Undecided

2,9

 

 

West

Center

South

East

Russian

1,9

8,3

44,6

49,7

Ukrainian

96,0

88,7

43,8

44,3

Other

1,5

0,3

5,0

2,4

Undecided

0,6

2,7

6,7

3,6